There is a lot visible to players in the universe but some things are hidden and require a little effort to find. If players wish to pursue a career in exploration then the Sensor Overlay is a good tool to start with. It can be used to give an overview of what exploration sites are located in the system, as well as provide a general direction where they may be located. The Sensor Overlay is located above the ships HUD and can be customized to filter what is displayed; bookmarks, anomalies, cosmic signatures etc.
For the more ardent explorer, Anomalies and Cosmic Signatures can be seen via the Probe Scanner window. Anomalies do not require probes to locate and can be selected and warped to without the assistance of probes. Cosmic Signatures on the other hand require Core Scanner Probes to locate the site before it can be warped to.
After probes are launched players can see the lifetime of their probes in the system via the Probe Scanner window and manipulate their position through the star map. There one can filter results to focus on a particular signature type; Structures, Cosmic Signatures, ships etc. If a result is filtered then it can be restored to the list by clicking on the 'Show' at the bottom of the window.
Probably the most important part of exploration is maintaining a supply of probes. A player in a wormhole system without means to probe out an exit is left with few options. Self destructing their ship and capsule to return to their home station or relying on the good will of the wormhole inhabitants to help them find an exit.
Players can recover any probes they left behind in previous system, in space after docking or lost due to the client closing, by clicking on the 'Reconnect to Lost Probes' button. Probes in space are removed during downtime so any deployed probes would have to be recovered before downtime begins.
It is of course best for players to keep an ample supply of probes with them in case any are lost or unable to be recovered.